Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Definition of Sharecropping

Meaning of Sharecropping Sharecropping was an arrangement of farming established in the American South during the time of Reconstruction after the Civil War. It basically supplanted the ranch framework which had depended on slave work and adequately made another arrangement of servitude. Under the arrangement of sharecropping, a poor rancher who didn't claim land would work a plot having a place with a landowner. The rancher would get a portion of the collect as installment. So while the previous slave was in fact free, he would at present end up bound to the land, which was regularly exactly the same land he had cultivated while oppressed. Also, by and by, the recently liberated slave confronted an existence of very restricted financial chance. As a rule, sharecropping destined liberated captives to an existence of neediness. Also, the arrangement of sharecropping, in genuine practice, destined ages of American in the South to a ruined presence in a financially hindered area. Start of the Sharecropping System Following the end of servitude, the ranch framework in the South could not exist anymore. Landowners, for example, cotton grower who had claimed tremendous manors, needed to confront another financial reality. They may have claimed huge measures of land, however they didn't have the work to work it, and they didn't have the cash to employ ranch laborers. The a large number of liberated slaves likewise needed to confront another lifestyle. Despite the fact that liberated from servitude, they needed to adapt to various issues in the post-subjection economy. Many liberated slaves were ignorant, and all they knew was ranch work. Furthermore, they were new to the idea of working for compensation. Without a doubt, with opportunity, numerous previous slaves tried to become free ranchers claiming land. Also, such desires were energized by bits of gossip that the U.S. government would assist them with getting a beginning as ranchers with a guarantee of forty sections of land and a donkey. Actually, previous slaves were only here and there ready to build up themselves as free ranchers. What's more, as ranch proprietors separated their domains into littler homesteads, numerous previous slaves became tenant farmers on the place where there is their previous bosses. How Sharecropping Worked In a run of the mill circumstance, a landowner would gracefully a rancher and his family with a house, which may have been a shack recently utilized as a slave lodge. The landowner would likewise gracefully seeds, cultivating apparatuses, and other vital materials. The expense of such things would later be deducted from anything the rancher earned. A significant part of the cultivating done as sharecropping was basically a similar kind of work concentrated cotton cultivating which had been done under subjugation. At gather time, the harvest was taken by the landowner to advertise and sold. From the cash got, the landowner would initially deduct the expense of seeds and some other supplies. The returns of what was left would be part between the landowner and the rancher. In an average situation, the rancher would get half, however here and there the offer given to the rancher would be less. In such a circumstance, the rancher, or tenant farmer, was basically weak. What's more, if the gather was awful, the tenant farmer could really end up under water to the landowner. Such obligations were for all intents and purposes difficult to survive, so sharecropping regularly made circumstances where ranchers were secured in an existence of destitution. Sharecropping is in this way frequently known as subjugation by another name, or obligation servitude. A few tenant farmers, in the event that they had fruitful reaps and figured out how to aggregate enough money, could become sharecroppers, which was viewed as a higher status. A sharecropper leased land from a landowner and had more power over how the administration of his cultivating. Be that as it may, sharecroppers likewise would in general be buried in neediness. Financial Effects of Sharecropping While the sharecropping framework emerged from the annihilation following the Civil War and was a reaction to an earnest circumstance, it turned into a perpetual circumstance in the South. Also, over the range of decades, it was not useful for southern farming. One negative impact of sharecropping was that it would in general make a one-crop economy. Landowners would in general need tenant farmers to plant and gather cotton, as that was the harvest with the most worth, and the absence of yield turn would in general fumes the dirt. There were likewise extreme financial issues as the cost of cotton changed. Generally excellent benefits could be made in cotton if the conditions and climate were good. In any case, it would in general be theoretical. Before the finish of the nineteenth century, the cost of cotton had dropped significantly. In 1866 cotton costs were in the scope of 43 pennies a pound, and by the 1880s and 1890s, it never went over 10 pennies a pound. While the cost of cotton was dropping, cultivates in the South were being cut up into littler and littler plots. Every one of these conditions added to broad neediness. Also, for most liberated slaves, the arrangement of sharecropping and the subsequent destitution implied their fantasy about working their own ranch would never be accomplished. The arrangement of sharecropping suffered past the late 1800s. For the early many years of the twentieth century it was still in actuality in parts of the American South. The pattern of monetary wretchedness made by sharecropping didn't completely blur away the time of the Great Depression. Sources: Sharecropping. Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Financial History, altered by Thomas Carson and Mary Bonk, vol. 2, Gale, 2000, pp. 912-913. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Hyde, Samuel C., Jr. Sharecropping and Tenant Farming. Americans at War, altered by John P. Resch, vol. 2: 1816-1900, Macmillan Reference USA, 2005, pp. 156-157. Gale Virtual Reference Library.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Performance Appraisal of Mahindra Finance

Substance CHAPTER NO PAGE NO CHAPTER †1 2-9 †¢Introduction †¢Need for the investigation †¢Objectives of study †¢Scope of study CHAPTER †2 10-31 †¢Company Profile †¢Industry Profile CHAPTER †3 32-66 †¢Research Methodology †¢Primary Data †¢Secondary Data †¢Review Literature Data Analysis and Interpretation CHPATER †4 67-68 †¢Limitations Of study CHPATER †5 69-73 †¢Findings and Suggestions †¢Conclusion CHAPTER †6 74-77 †¢Questionner CHAPTERâ€7 78-79 †¢Bibliography CHAPTER-I INTRODUCTION NEED FOR THE STUDY OBJECTIVES OF STUDY SCOPR OF STUDY INTRODUCTIONPerformance Appraisal is the procedure of evaluation deliberately the exhibition and progress of a representative on the current employment and his potential for more elevated level occupations in future. It comprises of every single proper technique utilized in working associations to assess characters, commitments and possibilities of representatives. It is the way toward dissecting, acquiring and recording data about the general worth of a representative. As per Flippo execution examination is the efficient, intermittent and unbiased rating of a representatives greatness in issues relating to his current occupation and his potential for a superior job.Beach has characterized execution evaluation as the orderly assessment of individual with respect to his/her exhibition at work and his potential for advancement, Heyel watches â€Å"It is a procedure of assessing the presentation and capabilities of the workers of the business as far as the prerequisites of the activity for which he is utilized. With the end goal of organization including situations, choices for advancements, giving budgetary prizes and different activities which require differential treatment among the individuals from a gathering are recognized from activity influencing all individuals equally.The execution examination is the assessment of present execution and future abilities of a worker or gathering of representatives. It is viewed as a procedure of evaluating or making a decision about the worth, greatness, characteristics or status of some article, or individual. Execution examination is the piece of the various staffing process, to be specific enrollment, determination and arrangement. Execution evaluation is basic to comprehend and improve workers execution through HRD. Indeed execution examination is the reason for HRD. It is a decent system to control people.Employees need to advancements, pay additions, and great work conditions and they might want to be set in esteemed positions and might want to be moved to spots of their decision and like employments giving them most extreme fulfillment, etc. Thusly, workers get what they need, they should give what their bosses need. What's more, execution examination is one system to ensure that individuals at each level do things the manner in which their bosses need t hem to do. In this manner the bosses at each level make progress toward better composition of their own presentation by evaluating the exhibition of their subordinates and subsequently controlling their behavior.The accomplishment of an association will accordingly rely upon its capacity to quantify precisely the exhibition of its individuals and use it dispassionately to improve them as a virtual asset. At the each start, it might be brought up that the presentation evaluation is a ceaseless capacity and not only an issue of formal reports at specific purpose of time. Association needs to gauge worker execution to decide if adequate measures of execution are being maintained.The six essential rules on which the estimation of execution might be surveyed are quality, practicality, cost viability, requirement for management and relational effect. In the event that evaluations show that representatives are not performing at satisfactory levels step can be taken to disentangle occupatio ns, prepares and inspire laborers, or excuse them relying on the purposes behind lackluster showing. EVALUTION OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL. Representatives examination procedures are said to have been utilized just because. During the principal universal war, when, at the moment of Walter Dill Scott, the US Army received the ‘Man-to-Man' rating framework for assessing military personnel.During the 1920-30 time frame, normal compensation structures for hourly paid laborers were embraced in modern units. Under this framework, the approach of giving evaluation compensation increase based on merit was acknowledged. These early representative plans were called merit rating programs, which kept on being supposed up to the mid-fifties. By at that point, the majority of these plans were of the rating scale type, where accentuation was given to elements, degree and focuses in the early expert and administrative staff, Since at that point, because of tests and an extraordinary expert and a dministrative personnel.Since at that point, because of analyses and a lot of study, the way of thinking of execution examination has experienced huge changes. Thusly, a change has likewise occurred in the phrasing utilized. Presently, the more seasoned expression merit rating is to a great extent limited to the rating of hourly paid workers, and it is utilized oftentimes in creating standards for pay modification, advancements, move and so forth the later expression, staff examination, places accentuation on the improvement of the person as and generally used to assess specialized, proficient and administrative personnel.Prof. Sea shore has given a valuable graph, indicating the adjustments in the wording of representative examination which have occurred since 1920. In spite of the fact that the enthusiasm for the utilization of execution examination has expanded throughout the most recent thirty years, the act of officially assessing workers has existed for quite a long time. The presentation evaluation framework has experienced a great deal of changes throughout the years as demonstrated as follows: 1900; Subjective examinations. 1940:Increased psychometric complexity. 1950:Management by targets (MBO). 1960:BARS. 1970-90:Hybrid framework and approach.The examination of people in a work has been marked and portrayed by specialists throughout the years in various manners. Basic portrayals incorporate execution examination, merit rating, social appraisal, representative assessment, work force audit, progress report, staff evaluation, administration rating and wellness report. Some work force specialists utilize such idea reciprocally, while decipher a portion of these examination states in an unexpected way. Anyway the term execution examination or assessment is most broadly utilized. NEED/IMPORTANCE OF STUDY Performance Appraisal is a proper exercise wherein an association makes an assessment in an archived type of its workers, as far as commitments made towa rds accomplishing hierarchical targets or potentially their own qualities and shortcoming, and as far as characteristics and practices showed for meeting whatever destinations the association may think about applicable. ?Examinations are decisions, exchanges and exhibitions of representatives. Execution Appraisal is a successful instrument for helping, individuals develop and create in authoritative settings.It could as a viable system of proceeding with instruction gaining from each other. ?Give data about the presentation positions. Choices with respect to compensation obsession, affirmation, advancement, move and downgrade are taken dependent on execution. ?Give criticism data about the degree of accomplishment and conduct of the subordinate. This data assists with assessing the exhibition of the subordinate, redressing execution lacks and to set new norms of work ? Give data which assists with directing the subordinate. ?To forestall complaints and in disciplinary exercises in a ssociation. Give data to analyze insufficiency in the representative with respect to ability, information, decide preparing and advancement needs and to recommend the methods for worker development gives data to position. Goals OF STUDY: Performance evaluation targets accomplishing various purposes, they are: ?To empower every representative to comprehend his job and become powerful at work. ?To escalate the advancement needs of every representative. ?To make and keep up a palatable degree of execution. ?To add to the representative development and improvement through preparing, self and the board advancement programs. To assist the bosses with having an appropriate comprehension about their subordinates. ?To control the activity changes with the assistance to persistent positioning. ?To encourage reasonable and fair pay dependent on execution. ? To encourage for testing and approving determination tests, interviews strategies through contrasting their scores and execution evaluatio n positions. ?To guarantee the authoritative adequacy through amending the worker for standard and improved execution and recommending the adjustment in representative change in conduct. ? To fill in as components for bringing in correspondence between the bosses and subordinates. To help the executives in fixing workers as indicated by their ability, intrigue and fitness and capabilities. ? To give a legitimate information base to individual choices concerning arrangements, pay, advancements, move and discipline. Primary Objectives of Performance Appraisal From the authoritative perspective, execution evaluation serves two arrangements of objectives, 1. Assessment objectives. 2. Training and improvement objectives. Assessment objectives ?Give input to subordinates so they know where they stand. ?To create legitimate information for pay an advancement choices and to give a methods for conveying these choices. To help the association in settling on release and maintenance choices and to give a methods for notice subordinates about good execution. Extent OF THE STUDY: The extent of the investigation incorporates administrative and non-administrative framework workers of Mahindra and Mahindra account ltd. To asses the exhibition evaluation framework, to know the representatives discernment towards PAS. Section †2 COMPANY PROFILE INDUSTRY PROFILE COMPANY PROFILE Mahindra Group Incorporated as Mahindra and Mahindra in 19

Thursday, August 20, 2020

Long-Term Effects of Antidepressants

Long-Term Effects of Antidepressants Depression Treatment Medication Print Long-Term Use of Antidepressants What are the risks? By Adrienne Dellwo linkedin Adrienne Dellwo is an experienced journalist who was diagnosed with fibromyalgia and has written extensively on the topic. Learn about our editorial policy Adrienne Dellwo Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Grant Hughes, MD on February 04, 2018 Grant Hughes, MD is board-certified in rheumatology and is the head of rheumatology at Seattles Harborview Medical Center. Learn about our Medical Review Board Grant Hughes, MD Updated on February 03, 2020 Depression Overview Types Symptoms Causes & Risk Factors Diagnosis Treatment Coping ADA & Your Rights Depression in Kids In This Article Table of Contents Expand Effects to the Brain Long-Term Effects Weight Gain Blood Sugar & Diabetes Depression View All Verywell / JR Bee Do you worry about the effects of long-term use  of antidepressants? These drugs are among the most commonly prescribed in the United States, and theyre often prescribed for long-term use.?? But is it safe to use antidepressants for years on end? While this class of medications is named after a single condition, the drugs are used to treat a wide variety of illnesses other than major depressive disorder, including: Neuropathy (pain from damaged nerves, including diabetic neuropathy)Generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorderObsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)Bipolar disordersFibromyalgiaMyalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Childhood bedwettingPremenstrual syndrome (PMS)BulimiaBinge eating disorder Many of these conditions are chronic or can return if you go off the medication. That means a lot of people take them for years, and that leads to concerns about the long-term side effects. In spite of how popular these drugs are, were just learning what those long-term effects may be. Extended studies are rarely done before a drug gains approval, so medications can be around for a long time before we start to get a clear picture of what can happen after years of continuous use. Fortunately, the body of literature on the long-term use of antidepressants is growing, and were gaining a better understanding of their impact on us. Antidepressants and Your Brain Before delving into the research, lets look at how antidepressants work. Antidepressants come in several forms. The major ones are: TricyclicsMAO inhibitors (MAOIs)Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) In your brain, informationâ€"including emotionâ€"moves from one neuron (brain cell) to another via chemical messengers called neurotransmitters.?? Think of neurotransmitters as mailbox keys. Each one unlocks certain receptors (chemical locks) on neurons in order to allow the message to keep traveling. In the diseases and conditions listed above, as well as many others, something is messed up with the neurotransmittersâ€"usually serotonin and/or norepinephrine, and possibly dopamine and/or a few others.?? It may be that theres just not enough. In some cases, the brain may not use it efficiently, or the problem could lie with the receptors. So theres either no key for the lock, the key isnt used properly, or the lock is broken. Regardless of the specific cause of the problem, the result is the same: neurotransmitter dysregulation.?? The mail isnt getting to the right mailbox, so messages arent being delivered. Antidepressants change how your neurotransmitters function, making more available so that when a message comes along, it can be properly delivered. This is achieved by  slowing down a process called reuptake, which is essentially a clean-up/recycling process.?? Once the messages are flowing more as they should, your brain works better and the symptoms related to the slow-down diminish or go away. However, the brain is a complex environment, and each neurotransmitter has a lot of different jobs. Increasing the available neurotransmitters may have the desired effect of alleviating your depression, lowering your neuropathic pain, or helping you think straight, but it can also lead to all kinds of unwanted effects. The potential side effects of antidepressants are many, and they can range from mildly annoying to debilitating and even  life-threatening. Beyond that, theres the issue of antidepressants becoming less effective over time. As weve learned more about the long-term side effects, some of the top concerns that have emerged have to do with weight gain and diabetes. However, many other side effects can continue long term and can have a negative impact on your quality of life. Long-Term Effects of Antidepressants: What People Say In 2016, the medical journal Patient Preference and Adherence published a paper looking at what people taking antidepressants long-term had to say about the side effects that theyve seen.?? Overall, they did say they were less depressed and had a better quality of life because of the drugs, but about 30 percent still said they had moderate or severe depression. The main side effects they complained about included: Sexual problems (72 percent), including inability to reach orgasm (65 percent)Weight gain (65 percent)Feeling emotionally numb (65 percent)Not feeling like themselves (54 percent)Reduced positive feelings (46 percent)Feeling as if theyre addicted (43 percent)Caring less about other people (36 percent)Feeling suicidal (36 percent) Many of the participants wanted more information about the long-term risks of their medication. About 74 percent of people also mentioned withdrawal symptoms,  and said they needed more information and support about going off of antidepressants. You should never stop taking antidepressants suddenly. Talk to your doctor about the proper way to wean off of them. Some people also noted that theyd had to try multiple antidepressants before finding one that worked well for them and was tolerable. However, more than two-thirds of the people questioned said the medication helped them cope with life. About one-fifth said the antidepressants helped them to function well. Some people also said that if theyd known about the side effects and withdrawal difficulties, they would never have started on the drug at all. What It Means for You Before taking an antidepressant, make sure youre familiar with the possible side effects as well as the proper method of going off of them. Know that you may need to try several drugs before finding the best one for you. While youre on the medication, stay vigilant for side effects and weigh how significant they are versus how much the drug helps you. While you should involve your doctor in any decisions you make regarding antidepressant use, youre the only one who can decide whether the benefits outweigh the drawbacks. Weight Gain A 2015 study in The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry suggests that the long-term risk of weight gain from antidepressants that alter serotonin receptors may be significantly higher in women than in men, possibly due to gender differences in how serotonin is used.?? A 2015 Australian study noted that people on antidepressants tended to gain more than three percent of their body weight each year. Over time, that can really add up. What it Means for You Weight gain can have negative effects on your self-esteem as well as your health. Talk to your doctor about how you may be able to improve your diet and/or increase exercise to help keep those extra pounds from piling up. Blood Sugar Diabetes Several studies have noted what appears to be a link between antidepressant use and problems with blood sugar regulation, including type 2  diabetes.?? A systematic review published in a 2013 edition of the journal Diabetes Care examined this relationship to get a better feel for whats going on. They looked at 22 studies, including a couple with more than 4,000 participants. Heres a look at some of the findings that prompted the review: Antidepressants may worsen blood sugar control because they can cause significant weight gain.SSRIs and nortriptyline reportedly worsen blood sugar control in people with diabetes.Tricyclic antidepressants cause hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels) in humans.In mice, tricyclic antidepressants cause a condition called hyperinsulinemia, in which the blood contains too much insulin relative to the amount of sugar. The aim of the review was to determine whether antidepressants raise the risk of diabetes in people who didnt have it when they started on the medications. They concluded that yes, some antidepressants affect blood sugar regulation and that the drugs could be a risk factor for diabetes. However, the larger and more recent studies they looked at suggested that the risk was small. They do say, though, that higher doses appear to be linked to a greater risk. Also, in some cases, people who have developed type 2  diabetes while on antidepressants have seen the disease disappear when they went off of the medication. Researchers also note that people who were diagnosed with diabetes were more likely to be prescribed antidepressants, but the relationship there isnt clear. What It Means for You If youre concerned about your diabetes risk or have type 2  diabetes, you may want to talk to your doctor about finding an antidepressant that is less linked to blood sugar problems. You may also want to test your blood sugars more frequently. If you have diabetes, your doctor may want to adjust your diabetes medications while youre on antidepressants to make sure your blood sugar levels are staying in a healthy range. You might also want to focus more on weight loss and exercise, since both of those things play a role in diabetes, and your antidepressant may be causing some weight gain. Can Antidepressants Make You Depressed? Can using antidepressants for too long actually make you depressed? Some studies suggest that it might. Two studies published in 2011, from the same research team, noted that people with supposedly treatment-resistant major depressive disorder, whove been on high doses of antidepressants for a long time, often feel better after weaning off of the medication.?? ?? Because antidepressants can become less effective over time, as you develop a tolerance for them, symptoms can come back down the road; however, this team doesnt believe that can account for all of the people who develop worse depression while taking the drugs. They hypothesize that the drugs may lead to changes in the brain that actually cause depression. In these cases, they proposed the term tardive dysphoria to describe the increase in symptoms. Tardive means that it comes on late in treatment. Dysphoria is a state of depression, dissatisfaction, discomfort, or restlessness. The researchers call for tardive dysphoria to be studied as a potential side effect of antidepressant use and considered as a possible factor in studies of treatment-resistant depression. What It Means for You Research into tardive dysphoria is in the earliest stages. Its easy to jump to conclusions with things like this, but keep in mind that we dont even know for certain that tardive dysphoria is a problem with antidepressants. Be smart and cautious as you make important medical decisions and involve your medical team. If your depression has gotten worse in spite of being on antidepressants, talk to your doctor about tardive dysphoria as well as other possible causes before deciding whether to go off of your medication. Also, remember that you need to wean off of the drugs properly. A Word From Verywell As all drugs do, antidepressants have lists of potential pros and cons. Treatment is a balancing act, with you and your doctor(s) weighing the good against the bad and deciding what the next move should be. Starting a new drug is a big decision, and so is  continuing treatment long-term or opting to discontinue. Make sure youre well informed at every step and getting professional advice. In the end, its all about making you feel better.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Analysis Of Emily Dickinson s I Heard A Fly Buzz When I

Death is something all human beings will come to deal with one day. It doesn’t matter when or who it is, one could be young, middle-aged, or old. One could be born into wealth, royalty, or poverty. In a perfect world everyone would live to old age and pass away in their sleep, but this isn’t a perfect world and the reality is that death could come at any moment, whether one is ready or not. Many people fear death as it means an end to everything they’ve done in their life while others see it as the next stage of theirs. Emily Dickinson’s â€Å"I heard a Fly buzz-when I died-† shows that death is not an end but simply a passage to eternity, while â€Å"Because I could not stop for Death-† shows that eternity isn’t guaranteed but underlined by faith. In both poems Dickinson uses imagery, and figurative language to describe the cycle of death after the speaker has already passed. In â€Å"I heard a fly buzz-when I died-† the speaker starts off stating that he/she is on his/her deathbed and adds a simile after, â€Å"The stillness in the Room/ Was like the Stillness in the Air/ Between the Heaves of Storm† (2-4). The speaker is saying that this stillness is referencing to the eye of the storm, which is eerily quiet like the air in the room around his/her deathbed. Like any storm after the eye has passed, the rest of the storm is following, which means that more is to come in this room. For the second stanza the speaker states that there are now other people in the room â€Å"The Eyes around† (5). TheseShow MoreRelated Analysis of I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died and Because I Could Not Stop for Death by Emily Dickinson593 Words   |  3 PagesAnalysis of I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died and Because I Could Not Stop for Death by Emily Dickinson Emily Dickinson wrote many poems in her lifetime. She writes two of my favorite poems. They are: ?I heard a Fly buzz when I died? and ?Because I could not stop for Death?. They both have similarities and differences from each other. There are similarities in these two poems such as the theme and the observentness of the narrator. Both of the poems themes involve death. In ?I heardRead MoreEmily Dickinson Poetry Essay1591 Words   |  7 PagesEmily Dickinson’s Poetry There is a lot more to poetry than just the words themselves. â€Å"What William Shakespeare called, â€Å"the mind’s eye† also plays a role† (Borus34). What that means is that your experiences and thoughts will add to your understanding. Dickinson had an active mind and a style so unique and unusual with her writing. Something that was very unusual about her writing was that she never put a title to her poems. Just like many poets, she used a wide assortment of literary devices suchRead MoreCritical Analysis Of I Heard A Fly Buzz When I Died1381 Words   |  6 PagesLater in her life, Dickinson writes about death and the overwhelming presence of death. Her famous poem, I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died, talks about death and the decay of the body. According to Helen Vendler’s Dickinson: Selected Poems and Commentaries, it gives an analysis of the I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died in line 7 of the poem the king will be coming and will reclaim what belongs to hi m and when he comes it will be witnessed by the bystanders in the room. The King is coming for the deceasedRead MoreMarketing Mistakes and Successes175322 Words   |  702 Pagesstudies. I. Title. HF5415.1.H37 2009 658.800973—dc22 2008040282 ISBN-13 978-0-470-16981-0 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 PREFACE Welcome to the 30th anniversary of Marketing Mistakes and Successes with this 11th edition. Who would have thought that interest in mistakes would be so enduring? Many of you are past users, a few even for decades. I hope you will find this new edition a worthy successor to earlier editions. I think

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Analysis Of Sir Gawains Character Essay - 1100 Words

Analysis Of Sir Gawains Character In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, the character of Sir Gawain, nephew of the famed Arthur of the Round Table, is seen as the most noble of knights who is the epitome of chivalry, yet he is also susceptible to mistakes. His courtesy, honor, honesty, and courage are subjected to various tests, posed by the wicked Morgan le Fay. Some tests prove his character and the chivalrous code true and faultless, like the time he answers a challenge although it might mean his death, or remains courteous to a lady despite temptation. Other tests prove his character and the chivalrous code faulty such as the time he breaks his promise to his host, and when he flinches from a harmless blow. The first test to his†¦show more content†¦More proof of Sir Gawain’s chivalrous and courageous character is evident when he arrives at Bercilak’s court. The people are honored that their guest is Sir Gawain, the most honored of all the knights on earth, even though Gawain describes himself as young and untested. They whisper to each other that Gawain, whose â€Å"courage is ever-constant† and â€Å"custom-pure,† will demonstrate and teach them his â€Å"command of manners† and â€Å"love’s language†(SGGK l. 912, 924, 927). The conversation of the household serves to provide proof of his Gawains fine character. The next test of his character comes during his three-day stay at Hautdesert castle. His courtesy and honor are tested when the host’s lady pursues Gawain in order to fool him into action that will destroy his knightly ideal. She tempts him with â€Å"bosom all but bare†(SGGK l. 1741). With another man’s wife pursuing him, Gawain must be courtly and polite to the lady yet must deny her advances. She claims that since â€Å"he won her favor, he should claim a kiss from her as accords with the conduct of courteous knights† (SGGK l. 1489-1491). Gawain must abide by his morals and abstain from adulterous actions, while being a courteous knight. He is forced to make a choice to be courteous to the lady, thus dishonoring his host, or be discourteous and honor his host by not committing adultery with his wife. By choosing to return each of the successive kisses received, Gawain is able to pass the first test posed byShow MoreRelatedThe Code Of Chivalry And The Fu ndamental Thoughts And Actions Of Human Nature1499 Words   |  6 Pages Sir Gawain†¦ Chivalric? By analyzing Sir Gawain’s attempts of following the Code of Chivalry and the fundamental thoughts and actions of human nature helps to further analyze Gawain’s character. The definition of Chivalry is the â€Å"set of values and code of conduct for the medieval knightly class† (Shatz) examining Gawain’s attempts to achieve his goal of being the perfect chivalric knight, the nature of his obstacles has to be determined, and the development of his character has to be analyzeRead MoreArchetypes In Sir Gawain And The Green Knight1100 Words   |  5 Pagesidentify which character represents which archetype. One must also understand that each story— bearing its own unique characteristics— will not always follow Joseph Campbell’s analysis to the tee, but will bear very similar qualities. For example, a character may represent multiple archetypes— a common trend in the poem Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Despite common belief, though , other elements of a story allow for analyzation as well. In fact, a number of archetypal situations, characters, colors,Read MoreSir Gawain and the Green Knight Essay1395 Words   |  6 PagesSir Gawain and the Green Knight In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight the poet depicts an entertaining story of adventure and intrigue. However, the poem is more than a grand adventure. It is an attempt to explore the moral ideals of Sir Gawain. Gawains standards are represented by the pentangle on his shield. The depiction of the pentangle occurs when Sir Gawain is preparing to gear up for his quest for the Green Chapel. Gawains outfit is described in great detail, including its color,Read MoreEssay Analysis of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight1050 Words   |  5 PagesAnalysis of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, after Gawain ventures â€Å"into a forest fastness, fearsome and wild† (Norton, 311), he prays that he will be able to find â€Å"harborage† on Christmas Eve (Norton, 312). It is the middle of winter, and Gawain has been traveling in search of the Green Knight whose head he has cut off. After he prays and signs himself three times, Gawain finds a magical castle in the midst of a winter forest. He rides to the castle and is grantedRead More Sir Gawain and The Green Knight Essay1602 Words   |  7 PagesSir Gawain and The Green Knight Summary The story begins in King Arthurs court, where he and the Knights of the Round Table are celebrating New Years. While they are enjoying their feast, a gigantic Green Knight rides in on a green horse with an immense axe in his hand to offer them a challenge. His offer is: I shall bide the fist blow, as bare as I sit†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.., but in twelve month and one day he shall have of me the same. (Norton Anthology,208) After a moment of consideration, Sir GawainRead MoreSir Gawain and The Green Knight Essay1342 Words   |  6 PagesSir Gawain and The Green Knight In literature, insights into characters, places, and events are often communicated to the reader through the use of imagery within the text. Thus is the case with Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. The Pearl Poets use of imagery runs rampant within the work culminating to set forth the theme of mysticism and/or the supernatural. In this Medieval romance, the types of imagery used are that of the season or climate, the colors and textures of fabrics and jewelryRead More A Character Analysis of Sir Gawain as Presented In Sir Gawain and The Green Knight1426 Words   |  6 PagesA Character Analysis of Sir Gawain as Presented In Sir Gawain and The Green Knight In Sir Gawain and The Green Knight, the character of Sir Gawain is skillfully brought to life by the unknown author. Through the eyes of numerous characters in the poem, we see Gawain as a noble knight who is the epitome of chivalry; he is loyal, honest and above all, courteous. As the story progresses, Gawain is subjected to a number of tests of character, some known and some unknown. These tests tell us a greatRead MoreEssay about Sir Gawain and the Green Knight1732 Words   |  7 PagesSir Gawain and the Green Knight Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is a poem written during the medieval period about the Arthurian legend. Although the author is anonymous, it is apparent that the dialect of Sir Gawain points to an origin in provincial England, and it represents the cultural centers which remote from the royal court at London where Geoffrey Chaucer spent his life (Norton, 200). This poem is considered one of the best works of Middle English literature. One reason is that theRead MoreSir Gawain And The Green Knight3517 Words   |  15 PagesKapelle Medieval Literature 16 April 2015 Sir Gawain’s Performative Identity and Antifeminist Diatribe in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Medieval scholars continually inspect the particularities of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (SGGK) within the context of the preexisting Gawain literary tradition, and the issue of Gawain’s sudden antifeminist diatribe repeatedly comes to the forefront of these textual investigations. Often, literary critics claim that Gawain’s antifeminist outburst is common for theRead More Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Essay1991 Words   |  8 PagesSir Gawain and the Green Knight - Character Analysis of Sir Gawain The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnell is a medieval romance poem written by an anonymous author. Sir Gawain is one of the major characters in the poem. He is a very likable personality. Sir Gawain represents an ideal knight of the fourteenth century. Throughout the story, we see Sir Gawain portrayed as a very courteous and noble knight, always trying to help King Arthur. The characteristics of Sir Gawain like kindness, generosity

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Moral dimensions of punishment Free Essays

Moral and political theory, that is, should perceive itself as articulating how it is possible for inquirers, â€Å"immersed as they are in the contingent contexts of their lives and circumstances,† (Barcan-Marcus, 1980) to work out for themselves the details about what is right and wrong. As inquirers we proceed as best we can in the situations in which we find ourselves and which we create for ourselves, guided by the thought that experience is the key to truth, knowledge, and objectivity. As Dewey stressed, the pragmatist must see morality and politics as problem-driven, and those problems will vary as social practices, systems of domination and oppression, the religious makeup of a population, and a host of other circumstances vary. We will write a custom essay sample on Moral dimensions of punishment or any similar topic only for you Order Now There are many laws that regulate the publication and dissemination of pornography; however, they take what some might term a rather permissive attitude toward consensual sexual activity between adults. Since this is an area in which morality law differs quite considerably in the United States and Europe. Included in the subcategory of offenses against morality are drug and consensual sex offenses. The English have a framework of laws classifying drugs into different categories and proscribing their unlawful importation, production, and possession. Although the English do permit heroin to be supplied to registered addicts, this is done far less frequently than might be envisaged. Durkheim was one of the leading thinkers in this regard. In looking at the nature of modern industrial society, Durkheim focused on the moral basis of social order and stability – the basis of what he termed social solidarity. He argued that without the regulation of society, individuals would attempt to satisfy their own desires and wishes without regard to their fellows. This societal regulation had, he believed, to be based on a set of shared values; and a working society required that the individuals within it accepted these common values. Durkheim called this common set of values the collective conscience, which he defined as ‘the totality of beliefs and sentiments common to average citizens of the same society’. â€Å"†¦Crime is, then, necessary; it is bound up with the fundamental conditions of all social life, and by that very fact it is useful, because these conditions of which it is a part are themselves indispensable to the normal evolution of morality and law†¦.† (Crain, 1985) The existence of social morality and social solidarity makes punishment inevitable and necessary, in that it reaffirms and strengthens the moral and social bonds. Of course, punishment is not the only process that does this; religion, education and family life all help to strengthen the collective conscience and to promote social cohesion. Punishment has to be seen as a very important means of reinforcing moral and social order in less complex societies with a less developed division of labour. However, while methods of punishment change over time, the essential functions of punishment remain constant. Although the collective conscience of a society changes over time and people are outraged by different activities, punishment as a social process has an unchanging character. Punishment is seen as an important and necessary part of the moral order of society. It helps prevent the collapse of moral authority and demonstrates the strength of moral commands. For Durkheim, the primary function of punishment is the reassertion of the moral order of society. From this analysis, punishment is not an instrument of deterrence that aims to prevent the repetition of a guilty act; â€Å"the threat of the unpleasant consequences of particular punishments are just practical problems that might stand in the way of the criminal’s desires† (Gill, 2003). Rather, it is a means of conveying moral messages and of indicating the strength of feelings that lie behind those messages and the common consciousness. In practical terms, punishment may have to be unpleasant, but in terms of the role of punishment in society Durkheim sees that as incidental: the essence of punishment is the expression of moral condemnation. Because law and morality are so intertwined (laws, for example, often develop out of moral concerns) the distinction between the two is often ignored. But they are different: something moral may not be legal; something legal may not be moral. A law is a rule of conduct prescribed by properly constituted governing authority and enforced by sanctions. Whether or not an action is moral, by contrast, depends upon whether it can be supported by reasons within the framework of a set of moral assumptions, which themselves must be subject to critical appraisal. The views in this paper are concerned primarily with the moral permissibility of expediency. The legal issue, however, is never far in the background for two reasons. Most people consider the legality of an act to have a bearing on its morality. Moreover, e.g. if a sufficient number of people became persuaded of the moral acceptability of euthanasia, then laws might change, making it legal. The effective decisions, especially those which bend or erode established principles and adjust them to a changing environment, are taken behind the scenes. It follows that unless the innovator has the capacity and the contacts to negotiate successfully in this arena, he will not succeed. Behind the scenes he can exploit whatever personal effectiveness he has and he can make the hard realistic argument for whatever he proposes on the grounds of expediency. He can show that both his opponents and their principles will be diminished if they refuse to bend to the demands of a real world. He does not have to argue for the essential justice of what he proposes — for that may well be something which can be only asserted and cannot be rationally argued to those who think otherwise — but only for its expediency. One suspects that many new programs in teaching and research have been introduced in this way: they will cost nothing; refusal to adopt them will bring severe penalties; the sponsor is going to make himself unpleasant to everyone concerned, if he does not get his way; and so forth. But the victor is left in a very insecure position. His program has been accepted as a matter of expediency, but not as a matter of principle. It therefore is denied that halo of non rational acceptance, â€Å"that unthinking and unquestioning faith which could provide a protective inertia against the forces of revision, that same inertia which in the first place stood in the way of innovation.† (Pettit, 1997) It follows from this that acceptance behind the scenes is only the first step. To achieve security, to achieve ‘tenure’ so to speak, the new program must be made acceptable in the public arena and taken into the security of one of those principled stockades. In short, an innovation is accepted when it becomes part of the sacred. This can rarely, if ever, be done without a contest. So, at the end, we come to the real dilemma which far transcends, while it encompasses, the three-way pull of scholarship, collegiality and service. It is in reality a choice between equal evils: the open world of principle and the shadowed world of action. To choose one or the other is foolish, and the sensible man can only pilot his way between them. In the end it makes no sense to ask who steers the ship: Is it morality or expediency? Are the men in the smoke-filled rooms really those at the helm? They may be at the helm, but if there are no principles and there is no front arena, they have no course by which to steer. Scylla is the rock of principle: expediency is Charybdis. Politics being what they are, the ship seldom contrives to steer a straight course between them. Usually, if there is progress, it is achieved by bouncing from one rock to another. â€Å"What I hope to have shown is that there are some good reasons for thinking that we can make assertions or have genuine beliefs about what is right and wrong† (Phillips, 1983), just and unjust, cruel and kind; that we can inquire about the correctness of those beliefs; that our moral deliberations aim at the truth. And I hope to have shown that if we are to make sense of this, we must conduct ourselves via democratic principles – ones which encourage tolerance, openness, and understanding the experiences of others. By way of contrast, if our philosophical theory says that there is no truth to be had, then it is hard to see how we can satisfy ourselves that the reasons for being tolerant outweigh the reasons for, say, striving to eliminate the other in our midst. The same holds for a correspondence theory of truth, because it almost directly leads to the view that there is no truth about morals and politics. If truth is a matter of a statement’s getting the physical world right, then how could we possibly think that statements about what is just and unjust might be true or false? I have not in this paper spent a great deal of time on the independent epistemological arguments for pragmatism, but its comparative advantages ought nonetheless to be apparent. True to the phenomenology of morals and true to a democratic vision of inquiry, it gives us something to say to the Schmittian and to ourselves about why intolerance is wrong. Resources Barcan-Marcus, Ruth (1980) ‘Moral Dilemmas and Consistency’, Journal of Philosophy, lxxvii, 3. Crain, W.C. (1985). Theories of Development. Prentice-Hall. pp. 118-136 Gill, F.E. (2003). The Moral Benefit of Punishment. Lexington Books. Pettit, Philip (1997) Republicanism, Oxford: Clarendon Press. Phillips, Anne (1993) Democracy and Difference, University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press.    How to cite Moral dimensions of punishment, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Unethical Decision Making-Free-Samples for Students-Myassignment

Question: Write a reflection on how a team made an Unethical Decision in a Humanitarian Environment and how was the team input Collective Intelligence used to make this decision. Answer: Introduction Unethical decision in a workplace can be defined as a course of action that cannot be categorized as an act of good moral for a company or organization. Under an ethical dilemma, manager should stretch the truth and look for a big picture through using a holistic approach because the truth may differ. This type of decision is usually in the best interest of the ICRC and may be against the gut feeling or what seems to be right thing to some people. On the other hand, it may be for the greater good and to serve the big picture rather the impact of a project. In this case the team leader must trust and solicit ideas from team members and make a decision that may not be comfortable with his or her style. Thus, an ethical dilemma were the manager or a team is confused during a decision making process. For an example, our team sometime has to make a decision for which venue to use for training event a nice expensive hotel or a cheap venue at for ICRC participants. The fact is that most of our courses participants and clients are ICRC employees from challenging contexts thus having a comfortable venue promotes a better space for them to relax and reflect on learning and provides better atmosphere for participants and facilitators. On the other hand it was observed that training events in some hotels that are cheaper may cause lack of comfort for participants, more challenges with digestion, more expenses for water and transport etc. The other aspect in making such decision is the responsibility to donor funds and save donor money in order to spend it effectively. The idea is being frugal has its draw back on many elements of the training. Since training is an investment and it has returns it has to be managed well, its not an expense it actually provides ICRC with many returns that are tangible for the trained eye. Thus a teams decision in this case may be difficult to understand and at times making the right decision can be difficult to explain to someone out of the team while the decision is influenced by other dependable like procedures, security, other units, and season. Case study Our team was using a hotel venue at a lower price that was very reasonable but did not offer any facilities or an acceptable enough environment to our course participants; although staffs of the hotel were very nice, but the actual property lacked a lot of essential services and tools. A decision had to be made within the team, the team was divided some team members were against others were for the change, do we save money for beneficiaries and have an negative impact on our action in the field or invest entraining and training for good return on investment and a more coherent humanitarian response. Its amazing after dealing with stakeholders for a decade you become connected and its no longer just business transactions. Some team members thought that since the venue does well and promotes the community and VTC trainees we should stay there and consider asking them to improve gain. Although some team members had a very strong argument that got the team divided in the decision, manager took a decision to change the hotel and start somewhere new. The approach to making this decision required a certain amount of flexibility within the team. Some team members became emotional; others were challenging taking the role of the worrier. Conclusion Making a decision requires a manager to collect facts and manage the discussion between less fluent speakers and the more fluent or warrior speakers, and motivates even the slightest or inanest ideas. Only then you know as a manger you have thought and collected the intelligence of many to make the best decision for the ICRC and all the stakeholders involved. It can be said that there could be a few instances when a person or a team may take an unethical course when making a decision, but it is always advisable to think the situations through and come up with an ideas to suit the ICRC mission and vision. In the previously discussed case, it is clear that the manager took an unethical decision on a humanitarian ground but for the long term the team decided on a decision that favors the interest of the organization in the long term.