Sunday, May 24, 2020
Death is something all human beings will come to deal with one day. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter when or who it is, one could be young, middle-aged, or old. One could be born into wealth, royalty, or poverty. In a perfect world everyone would live to old age and pass away in their sleep, but this isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a perfect world and the reality is that death could come at any moment, whether one is ready or not. Many people fear death as it means an end to everything theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve done in their life while others see it as the next stage of theirs. Emily DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"I heard a Fly buzz-when I died-Ã¢â¬ shows that death is not an end but simply a passage to eternity, while Ã¢â¬Å"Because I could not stop for Death-Ã¢â¬ shows that eternity isnÃ¢â¬â¢t guaranteed but underlined by faith. In both poems Dickinson uses imagery, and figurative language to describe the cycle of death after the speaker has already passed. In Ã¢â¬Å"I heard a fly buzz-when I died-Ã¢â¬ the speaker starts off stating that he/she is on his/her deathbed and adds a simile after, Ã¢â¬Å"The stillness in the Room/ Was like the Stillness in the Air/ Between the Heaves of StormÃ¢â¬ (2-4). The speaker is saying that this stillness is referencing to the eye of the storm, which is eerily quiet like the air in the room around his/her deathbed. Like any storm after the eye has passed, the rest of the storm is following, which means that more is to come in this room. For the second stanza the speaker states that there are now other people in the room Ã¢â¬Å"The Eyes aroundÃ¢â¬ (5). TheseShow MoreRelated Analysis of I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died and Because I Could Not Stop for Death by Emily Dickinson593 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAnalysis of I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died and Because I Could Not Stop for Death by Emily Dickinson Emily Dickinson wrote many poems in her lifetime. She writes two of my favorite poems. They are: ?I heard a Fly buzz when I died? and ?Because I could not stop for Death?. They both have similarities and differences from each other. There are similarities in these two poems such as the theme and the observentness of the narrator. Both of the poems themes involve death. In ?I heardRead MoreEmily Dickinson Poetry Essay1591 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEmily DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Poetry There is a lot more to poetry than just the words themselves. Ã¢â¬Å"What William Shakespeare called, Ã¢â¬Å"the mindÃ¢â¬â¢s eyeÃ¢â¬ also plays a roleÃ¢â¬ (Borus34). What that means is that your experiences and thoughts will add to your understanding. Dickinson had an active mind and a style so unique and unusual with her writing. Something that was very unusual about her writing was that she never put a title to her poems. Just like many poets, she used a wide assortment of literary devices suchRead MoreCritical Analysis Of I Heard A Fly Buzz When I Died1381 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLater in her life, Dickinson writes about death and the overwhelming presence of death. Her famous poem, I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died, talks about death and the decay of the body. According to Helen VendlerÃ¢â¬â¢s Dickinson: Selected Poems and Commentaries, it gives an analysis of the I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died in line 7 of the poem the king will be coming and will reclaim what belongs to hi m and when he comes it will be witnessed by the bystanders in the room. The King is coming for the deceasedRead MoreMarketing Mistakes and Successes175322 Words Ã |Ã 702 Pagesstudies. I. Title. HF5415.1.H37 2009 658.800973Ã¢â¬âdc22 2008040282 ISBN-13 978-0-470-16981-0 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 PREFACE Welcome to the 30th anniversary of Marketing Mistakes and Successes with this 11th edition. Who would have thought that interest in mistakes would be so enduring? Many of you are past users, a few even for decades. I hope you will find this new edition a worthy successor to earlier editions. I think
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Analysis Of Sir Gawains Character In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, the character of Sir Gawain, nephew of the famed Arthur of the Round Table, is seen as the most noble of knights who is the epitome of chivalry, yet he is also susceptible to mistakes. His courtesy, honor, honesty, and courage are subjected to various tests, posed by the wicked Morgan le Fay. Some tests prove his character and the chivalrous code true and faultless, like the time he answers a challenge although it might mean his death, or remains courteous to a lady despite temptation. Other tests prove his character and the chivalrous code faulty such as the time he breaks his promise to his host, and when he flinches from a harmless blow. The first test to hisÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦More proof of Sir GawainÃ¢â¬â¢s chivalrous and courageous character is evident when he arrives at BercilakÃ¢â¬â¢s court. The people are honored that their guest is Sir Gawain, the most honored of all the knights on earth, even though Gawain describes himself as young and untested. They whisper to each other that Gawain, whose Ã¢â¬Å"courage is ever-constantÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"custom-pure,Ã¢â¬ will demonstrate and teach them his Ã¢â¬Å"command of mannersÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"loveÃ¢â¬â¢s languageÃ¢â¬ (SGGK l. 912, 924, 927). The conversation of the household serves to provide proof of his Gawains fine character. The next test of his character comes during his three-day stay at Hautdesert castle. His courtesy and honor are tested when the hostÃ¢â¬â¢s lady pursues Gawain in order to fool him into action that will destroy his knightly ideal. She tempts him with Ã¢â¬Å"bosom all but bareÃ¢â¬ (SGGK l. 1741). With another manÃ¢â¬â¢s wife pursuing him, Gawain must be courtly and polite to the lady yet must deny her advances. She claims that since Ã¢â¬Å"he won her favor, he should claim a kiss from her as accords with the conduct of courteous knightsÃ¢â¬ (SGGK l. 1489-1491). Gawain must abide by his morals and abstain from adulterous actions, while being a courteous knight. He is forced to make a choice to be courteous to the lady, thus dishonoring his host, or be discourteous and honor his host by not committing adultery with his wife. By choosing to return each of the successive kisses received, Gawain is able to pass the first test posed byShow MoreRelatedThe Code Of Chivalry And The Fu ndamental Thoughts And Actions Of Human Nature1499 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Sir GawainÃ¢â¬ ¦ Chivalric? By analyzing Sir GawainÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts of following the Code of Chivalry and the fundamental thoughts and actions of human nature helps to further analyze GawainÃ¢â¬â¢s character. The definition of Chivalry is the Ã¢â¬Å"set of values and code of conduct for the medieval knightly classÃ¢â¬ (Shatz) examining GawainÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts to achieve his goal of being the perfect chivalric knight, the nature of his obstacles has to be determined, and the development of his character has to be analyzeRead MoreArchetypes In Sir Gawain And The Green Knight1100 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesidentify which character represents which archetype. One must also understand that each storyÃ¢â¬â bearing its own unique characteristicsÃ¢â¬â will not always follow Joseph CampbellÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis to the tee, but will bear very similar qualities. For example, a character may represent multiple archetypesÃ¢â¬â a common trend in the poem Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Despite common belief, though , other elements of a story allow for analyzation as well. In fact, a number of archetypal situations, characters, colors,Read MoreSir Gawain and the Green Knight Essay1395 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSir Gawain and the Green Knight In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight the poet depicts an entertaining story of adventure and intrigue. However, the poem is more than a grand adventure. It is an attempt to explore the moral ideals of Sir Gawain. Gawains standards are represented by the pentangle on his shield. The depiction of the pentangle occurs when Sir Gawain is preparing to gear up for his quest for the Green Chapel. Gawains outfit is described in great detail, including its color,Read MoreEssay Analysis of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight1050 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAnalysis of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, after Gawain ventures Ã¢â¬Å"into a forest fastness, fearsome and wildÃ¢â¬ (Norton, 311), he prays that he will be able to find Ã¢â¬Å"harborageÃ¢â¬ on Christmas Eve (Norton, 312). It is the middle of winter, and Gawain has been traveling in search of the Green Knight whose head he has cut off. After he prays and signs himself three times, Gawain finds a magical castle in the midst of a winter forest. He rides to the castle and is grantedRead More Sir Gawain and The Green Knight Essay1602 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSir Gawain and The Green Knight Summary The story begins in King Arthurs court, where he and the Knights of the Round Table are celebrating New Years. While they are enjoying their feast, a gigantic Green Knight rides in on a green horse with an immense axe in his hand to offer them a challenge. His offer is: I shall bide the fist blow, as bare as I sitÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.., but in twelve month and one day he shall have of me the same. (Norton Anthology,208) After a moment of consideration, Sir GawainRead MoreSir Gawain and The Green Knight Essay1342 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSir Gawain and The Green Knight In literature, insights into characters, places, and events are often communicated to the reader through the use of imagery within the text. Thus is the case with Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. The Pearl Poets use of imagery runs rampant within the work culminating to set forth the theme of mysticism and/or the supernatural. In this Medieval romance, the types of imagery used are that of the season or climate, the colors and textures of fabrics and jewelryRead More A Character Analysis of Sir Gawain as Presented In Sir Gawain and The Green Knight1426 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesA Character Analysis of Sir Gawain as Presented In Sir Gawain and The Green Knight In Sir Gawain and The Green Knight, the character of Sir Gawain is skillfully brought to life by the unknown author. Through the eyes of numerous characters in the poem, we see Gawain as a noble knight who is the epitome of chivalry; he is loyal, honest and above all, courteous. As the story progresses, Gawain is subjected to a number of tests of character, some known and some unknown. These tests tell us a greatRead MoreEssay about Sir Gawain and the Green Knight1732 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSir Gawain and the Green Knight Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is a poem written during the medieval period about the Arthurian legend. Although the author is anonymous, it is apparent that the dialect of Sir Gawain points to an origin in provincial England, and it represents the cultural centers which remote from the royal court at London where Geoffrey Chaucer spent his life (Norton, 200). This poem is considered one of the best works of Middle English literature. One reason is that theRead MoreSir Gawain And The Green Knight3517 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesKapelle Medieval Literature 16 April 2015 Sir GawainÃ¢â¬â¢s Performative Identity and Antifeminist Diatribe in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Medieval scholars continually inspect the particularities of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (SGGK) within the context of the preexisting Gawain literary tradition, and the issue of GawainÃ¢â¬â¢s sudden antifeminist diatribe repeatedly comes to the forefront of these textual investigations. Often, literary critics claim that GawainÃ¢â¬â¢s antifeminist outburst is common for theRead More Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Essay1991 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesSir Gawain and the Green Knight - Character Analysis of Sir Gawain The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnell is a medieval romance poem written by an anonymous author. Sir Gawain is one of the major characters in the poem. He is a very likable personality. Sir Gawain represents an ideal knight of the fourteenth century. Throughout the story, we see Sir Gawain portrayed as a very courteous and noble knight, always trying to help King Arthur. The characteristics of Sir Gawain like kindness, generosity
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Moral and political theory, that is, should perceive itself as articulating how it is possible for inquirers, Ã¢â¬Å"immersed as they are in the contingent contexts of their lives and circumstances,Ã¢â¬ (Barcan-Marcus, 1980) to work out for themselves the details about what is right and wrong. As inquirers we proceed as best we can in the situations in which we find ourselves and which we create for ourselves, guided by the thought that experience is the key to truth, knowledge, and objectivity. As Dewey stressed, the pragmatist must see morality and politics as problem-driven, and those problems will vary as social practices, systems of domination and oppression, the religious makeup of a population, and a host of other circumstances vary. We will write a custom essay sample on Moral dimensions of punishment or any similar topic only for you Order Now There are many laws that regulate the publication and dissemination of pornography; however, they take what some might term a rather permissive attitude toward consensual sexual activity between adults. Since this is an area in which morality law differs quite considerably in the United States and Europe. Included in the subcategory of offenses against morality are drug and consensual sex offenses. The English have a framework of laws classifying drugs into different categories and proscribing their unlawful importation, production, and possession. Although the English do permit heroin to be supplied to registered addicts, this is done far less frequently than might be envisaged. Durkheim was one of the leading thinkers in this regard. In looking at the nature of modern industrial society, Durkheim focused on the moral basis of social order and stability Ã¢â¬â the basis of what he termed social solidarity. He argued that without the regulation of society, individuals would attempt to satisfy their own desires and wishes without regard to their fellows. This societal regulation had, he believed, to be based on a set of shared values; and a working society required that the individuals within it accepted these common values. Durkheim called this common set of values the collective conscience, which he defined as Ã¢â¬Ëthe totality of beliefs and sentiments common to average citizens of the same societyÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦Crime is, then, necessary; it is bound up with the fundamental conditions of all social life, and by that very fact it is useful, because these conditions of which it is a part are themselves indispensable to the normal evolution of morality and lawÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ (Crain, 1985) The existence of social morality and social solidarity makes punishment inevitable and necessary, in that it reaffirms and strengthens the moral and social bonds. Of course, punishment is not the only process that does this; religion, education and family life all help to strengthen the collective conscience and to promote social cohesion. Punishment has to be seen as a very important means of reinforcing moral and social order in less complex societies with a less developed division of labour. However, while methods of punishment change over time, the essential functions of punishment remain constant. Although the collective conscience of a society changes over time and people are outraged by different activities, punishment as a social process has an unchanging character. Punishment is seen as an important and necessary part of the moral order of society. It helps prevent the collapse of moral authority and demonstrates the strength of moral commands. For Durkheim, the primary function of punishment is the reassertion of the moral order of society. From this analysis, punishment is not an instrument of deterrence that aims to prevent the repetition of a guilty act; Ã¢â¬Å"the threat of the unpleasant consequences of particular punishments are just practical problems that might stand in the way of the criminalÃ¢â¬â¢s desiresÃ¢â¬ (Gill, 2003). Rather, it is a means of conveying moral messages and of indicating the strength of feelings that lie behind those messages and the common consciousness. In practical terms, punishment may have to be unpleasant, but in terms of the role of punishment in society Durkheim sees that as incidental: the essence of punishment is the expression of moral condemnation. Because law and morality are so intertwined (laws, for example, often develop out of moral concerns) the distinction between the two is often ignored. But they are different: something moral may not be legal; something legal may not be moral. A law is a rule of conduct prescribed by properly constituted governing authority and enforced by sanctions. Whether or not an action is moral, by contrast, depends upon whether it can be supported by reasons within the framework of a set of moral assumptions, which themselves must be subject to critical appraisal. The views in this paper are concerned primarily with the moral permissibility of expediency. The legal issue, however, is never far in the background for two reasons. Most people consider the legality of an act to have a bearing on its morality. Moreover, e.g. if a sufficient number of people became persuaded of the moral acceptability of euthanasia, then laws might change, making it legal. The effective decisions, especially those which bend or erode established principles and adjust them to a changing environment, are taken behind the scenes. It follows that unless the innovator has the capacity and the contacts to negotiate successfully in this arena, he will not succeed. Behind the scenes he can exploit whatever personal effectiveness he has and he can make the hard realistic argument for whatever he proposes on the grounds of expediency. He can show that both his opponents and their principles will be diminished if they refuse to bend to the demands of a real world. He does not have to argue for the essential justice of what he proposes Ã¢â¬â for that may well be something which can be only asserted and cannot be rationally argued to those who think otherwise Ã¢â¬â but only for its expediency. One suspects that many new programs in teaching and research have been introduced in this way: they will cost nothing; refusal to adopt them will bring severe penalties; the sponsor is going to make himself unpleasant to everyone concerned, if he does not get his way; and so forth. But the victor is left in a very insecure position. His program has been accepted as a matter of expediency, but not as a matter of principle. It therefore is denied that halo of non rational acceptance, Ã¢â¬Å"that unthinking and unquestioning faith which could provide a protective inertia against the forces of revision, that same inertia which in the first place stood in the way of innovation.Ã¢â¬ (Pettit, 1997) It follows from this that acceptance behind the scenes is only the first step. To achieve security, to achieve Ã¢â¬ËtenureÃ¢â¬â¢ so to speak, the new program must be made acceptable in the public arena and taken into the security of one of those principled stockades. In short, an innovation is accepted when it becomes part of the sacred. This can rarely, if ever, be done without a contest. So, at the end, we come to the real dilemma which far transcends, while it encompasses, the three-way pull of scholarship, collegiality and service. It is in reality a choice between equal evils: the open world of principle and the shadowed world of action. To choose one or the other is foolish, and the sensible man can only pilot his way between them. In the end it makes no sense to ask who steers the ship: Is it morality or expediency? Are the men in the smoke-filled rooms really those at the helm? They may be at the helm, but if there are no principles and there is no front arena, they have no course by which to steer. Scylla is the rock of principle: expediency is Charybdis. Politics being what they are, the ship seldom contrives to steer a straight course between them. Usually, if there is progress, it is achieved by bouncing from one rock to another. Ã¢â¬Å"What I hope to have shown is that there are some good reasons for thinking that we can make assertions or have genuine beliefs about what is right and wrongÃ¢â¬ (Phillips, 1983), just and unjust, cruel and kind; that we can inquire about the correctness of those beliefs; that our moral deliberations aim at the truth. And I hope to have shown that if we are to make sense of this, we must conduct ourselves via democratic principles Ã¢â¬â ones which encourage tolerance, openness, and understanding the experiences of others. By way of contrast, if our philosophical theory says that there is no truth to be had, then it is hard to see how we can satisfy ourselves that the reasons for being tolerant outweigh the reasons for, say, striving to eliminate the other in our midst. The same holds for a correspondence theory of truth, because it almost directly leads to the view that there is no truth about morals and politics. If truth is a matter of a statementÃ¢â¬â¢s getting the physical world right, then how could we possibly think that statements about what is just and unjust might be true or false? I have not in this paper spent a great deal of time on the independent epistemological arguments for pragmatism, but its comparative advantages ought nonetheless to be apparent. True to the phenomenology of morals and true to a democratic vision of inquiry, it gives us something to say to the Schmittian and to ourselves about why intolerance is wrong. Resources Barcan-Marcus, Ruth (1980) Ã¢â¬ËMoral Dilemmas and ConsistencyÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Philosophy, lxxvii, 3. Crain, W.C. (1985). Theories of Development. Prentice-Hall. pp. 118-136 Gill, F.E. (2003). The Moral Benefit of Punishment. Lexington Books. Pettit, Philip (1997) Republicanism, Oxford: Clarendon Press. Phillips, Anne (1993) Democracy and Difference, University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press. Ã How to cite Moral dimensions of punishment, Essay examples
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Write a reflection on how a team made an Unethical Decision in a Humanitarian Environment and how was the team input Collective Intelligence used to make this decision. Answer: Introduction Unethical decision in a workplace can be defined as a course of action that cannot be categorized as an act of good moral for a company or organization. Under an ethical dilemma, manager should stretch the truth and look for a big picture through using a holistic approach because the truth may differ. This type of decision is usually in the best interest of the ICRC and may be against the gut feeling or what seems to be right thing to some people. On the other hand, it may be for the greater good and to serve the big picture rather the impact of a project. In this case the team leader must trust and solicit ideas from team members and make a decision that may not be comfortable with his or her style. Thus, an ethical dilemma were the manager or a team is confused during a decision making process. For an example, our team sometime has to make a decision for which venue to use for training event a nice expensive hotel or a cheap venue at for ICRC participants. The fact is that most of our courses participants and clients are ICRC employees from challenging contexts thus having a comfortable venue promotes a better space for them to relax and reflect on learning and provides better atmosphere for participants and facilitators. On the other hand it was observed that training events in some hotels that are cheaper may cause lack of comfort for participants, more challenges with digestion, more expenses for water and transport etc. The other aspect in making such decision is the responsibility to donor funds and save donor money in order to spend it effectively. The idea is being frugal has its draw back on many elements of the training. Since training is an investment and it has returns it has to be managed well, its not an expense it actually provides ICRC with many returns that are tangible for the trained eye. Thus a teams decision in this case may be difficult to understand and at times making the right decision can be difficult to explain to someone out of the team while the decision is influenced by other dependable like procedures, security, other units, and season. Case study Our team was using a hotel venue at a lower price that was very reasonable but did not offer any facilities or an acceptable enough environment to our course participants; although staffs of the hotel were very nice, but the actual property lacked a lot of essential services and tools. A decision had to be made within the team, the team was divided some team members were against others were for the change, do we save money for beneficiaries and have an negative impact on our action in the field or invest entraining and training for good return on investment and a more coherent humanitarian response. Its amazing after dealing with stakeholders for a decade you become connected and its no longer just business transactions. Some team members thought that since the venue does well and promotes the community and VTC trainees we should stay there and consider asking them to improve gain. Although some team members had a very strong argument that got the team divided in the decision, manager took a decision to change the hotel and start somewhere new. The approach to making this decision required a certain amount of flexibility within the team. Some team members became emotional; others were challenging taking the role of the worrier. Conclusion Making a decision requires a manager to collect facts and manage the discussion between less fluent speakers and the more fluent or warrior speakers, and motivates even the slightest or inanest ideas. Only then you know as a manger you have thought and collected the intelligence of many to make the best decision for the ICRC and all the stakeholders involved. It can be said that there could be a few instances when a person or a team may take an unethical course when making a decision, but it is always advisable to think the situations through and come up with an ideas to suit the ICRC mission and vision. In the previously discussed case, it is clear that the manager took an unethical decision on a humanitarian ground but for the long term the team decided on a decision that favors the interest of the organization in the long term.
Wednesday, April 1, 2020
Traditions A ; Customs of Great Britain. Every state and every state has its ain imposts and traditions. In Britian traditions play more importaint portion in the life of the people than in some other states. Englishmans are proud of their traditions and carefully maintain them up. It has been the jurisprudence for about three hundred old ages that all the theaters are closed on Sundays no letters are delivered merely a few Sunday documents are publshed. To this twenty-four hours English households prefer cotage houses with gardens to flats in a modern house with cardinal heeting. English people like gardens. Sometimes the garden in forepart of the house is a small square covered with cement painted green ( in imitation of grass ) and a box of flowers. In English houses the fire-place has ever been the Centre of involvement in a room. For many months of the twelvemonth people like to sit round the fire and watch the dance fires. We will write a custom essay sample on Traditions Customs of Great Britain or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Fire topographic points are decorated with woodworks, there is a picture or a mirror over it. Above the fire there is normally a shelf with a clock and some exposure. Holydays are particularly rich in old traditions and are different in cotland, Wales and England. Christmas is a great English national holyday and in Scotland it is non kept at all exeept by clerks in Bankss, all the stores and mills are working. But 6 yearss subsequently on the New Year s Eve the Scots Begin to bask themselves. Peoples invite their friends to their houses and sit the old twelvemonth out and the new twelvemonth in. In England on new Year s Eve a batch of people go to Trafalgar Square, at midnight, they all cross their weaponries fall in custodies and sing. Peoples have parties excessively, they drink toarts to the New Year Children are happy to hold nowadayss. Four times a twelvemonth the offices and Bankss in Britain are closed on Monday. These public vacations are known as Bank Holidays. The British like to pass vacations out of the town in the unfastened air. They go to the sea-side or to amusements Parkss. Londoners frequently visit the Zoo, outside London they take their households to Hamsted Heath [ h # 1085 ; mstidhi @ ] a big natural park excessively. There is normally a large carnival with many different amusements for kids merry-go-round, swings marionette shows, bright baloons. One must besides talk about such vacations ass All Fools Day, Halloween Bonfire Night, St. Valentines Day and such tradition as Eisteddfod ( a festival of which civilization ) .
Saturday, March 7, 2020
buy custom Mobile Technology essay Mobile technology has brought a new look to the face of modern information society. A lot is changing in terms of how much more can be done with a help of mobile computers. What is more, the rate at which this is happening is faster than it can be documented and published. In effect, what the society is facing is a situation when technical solution unveils and releases into the market, it happens so fast that sooner than later another more reliable and innovative solution is developed. As a result, mobile computing has taken central place in the construction industry leading to the effective use of IT in linking field work, integrating various project partners, ensuring high level of less formalized process specification, and other components of the construction and operations phases of the construction process (Rejolj and Menzel, 2004). Nonetheless, mobile computing is very important in construction not only because of its technological aspect. It is also crucial because of the way it has been integrated into the construction industry to solve various problems and to make work much easier. Modern technology has been impressively helpful and effective over the years. However, there has been a missing link, which is convenience of technology in terms of mobility, that would enable someone to change physical location while still working on a project. Mobile computing with its constantly emerging trends and developments have since filled this gap. First, before going deeper into the concept of mobile computing in the construction industry, it is important to understand what is meant by the term "mobile computing". Imielinski and Korth in their book "Mobile Computing" (1996) explained that mobile computing involves the use of any gadgets that can have access to information from a remote physical area, either through cellular communications, wireless LANs, or satellite services. They claimed that the need for mobility would soon make millions of people carrying palmtops or laptop computers. Also, they had predicted that users will soon need to use light and powerful gadgets, like computers with larger memories and more powerful processors and be able to process whatever information they want away from a fixed location. This is also called "nomadic computing" (Imielinski Korth, 1996). In brief, mobile computing components can be categorized into three major categories. First is computers which can be used indoors and outdoors wh ile the user is in motion. These include tablet PCs and all kinds of pocket computers, wearable computers and palmtops. The second category are the networks, which should have a significantly strong bandwidth and can be accessed while in motion. It actually includes all wireless networks. The third and final category of this framework consists of mobile applications supporting context-sensitivity and personalization, which means "supporting the work-process, being aware or making use of user location, responding to specific characters of mobile computers and wireless networks (Rebolj Menzel, 2004)". An observation of the construction industry shows that the mobile computing concept has not yet been fully exploited. This is because most of the practicing professionals remain somewhat conventional and prefer using their traditionalmethods. However, mobile computing technologies have proven their effectiveness in specific construction operations and have a high potential to be used in highly sophisticated constructions. Moreover, application of this concept is very effective for higher levels of collaboration between project or task team members since it improves the working environment in the construction industry. After looking at some of the ways in which mobile computing can be used in the construction industry, a quick scan of the "Feasibility Study of Field Force Automation in Swedish Construction Sector" by Rebolj and Menzel is very revealing (2004). In this study authors speak about "Field Force Automation", which is a generic term for mobile applications used in real-time support of orders, scheduling, supervisions, and reporting in the field. Having conducted interviews during the research, the result of a study showed that these applications significantly increase the number and speed of many construction related field operations through real time planning support, work allocation and follow-up provided that the technical solutions are adapted to the end user (2004). It brings multiple advantages to the users in terms of reducing the lead-time and, apart from enhanced quality of work, it ensures that resources are used effectively. In another incidence, Rebolj and Menzel discovered through a research that mobile computing technology can be used on a construction site to implement, control, and collect data. They found that through a wireless protocol, a construction site can employ a site level data collection system. This system can be used by managers and other members of the workforce for real-time data collection and storage on a site based server through a mobile wireless LAN (2004). Authors argue that mobile computing technologies can be used to manage projects in a timely manner, since it enhances the flow of information throughout the site and reduces the remedial cost of improving the contract performance. These technologies also allow workers to easily access and manipulate construction data. In general, this research found that by introduction of this application to the construction site, the construction process becomes more time efficient. Further, through conducting a cost-benefit analysis, it is apparent that substantial amount of materials is saved on remedial works that would otherwise be used. In brief, there is a big potential that is still untapped about how much can be done at a construction site with the help of mobile computing. This notion is supported by Chen and Kamaras statement in their work "The Use of Mobile Computing in Construction Information Management". Authors claim that "the advancement of mobile computing gives the construction industry a powerful potential to extend the boundary of information systems to construction sites (2008)". Building Information Modeling (BIM) According to Lee, Marshall-Point, Aaouad, Tah, Cooper and Fu, BIM is the process of generating and managing building information in an interoperable and reusable way". Also, they define BIM system as a "system or a set of systems that enable users to integrate and reuse building information and domain knowledge through the lifecycle of building (2005)". BIM systems use 3-dimentiional object oriented CAD for designing and managing virtual building elements in 3-dimentional objects. These objects have more advantages as compared to 2-dimentional objects because they represent actual buildings geometrically in terms of their spatial relationships, functional relationship, and geographic information of the building elements. This form of system displays building objects in multiple viewing angles (three dimensional) and is used for designing and modeling domain specific problems. Because of this 3D capability, the BIM framework is perceived as "intelligent" and superior to two-dimensiona l computer aided designs (Shen Chua, 2011). In addition to their importance in procurement and delivery of construction projects, BIM systems are able to give elements a parametric design, meaning they designs objects as parameters with relationships to other objects. IBM, therefore, eliminates potential problems related to drawing while increasing the project's productivity through automatically updating any changes of the parametric elements. In another instance, Lee et al explained that BIM enables transition from three-dimensional CAD visualization to interoperable n-D CAD modeling and analysis (2005). This allows to use better levels of service than using a single 3D object CAD model. This special characteristic of a BIM system eliminates the ability of other individual specialists to recreate the geometry data, thus cutting out errors that may result from many people working on one project. Additionally, BIM systems allow using other BIM tools, which could be from different vendors. This advantage, referred to as "interoperability" enables the BIM system to synchronize its data with data from other CAD models, thus reducing the effect of fragmentation at the interface management level and collaboration management in the workflow. In summary, BIM systems take the construction industry a step further when it comes to delivery of projects due to the way they link and model the spatial relationship, the functional relationship and the geometrical information of buildings. It is a model that uses 3D CAD in designing and modeling building elements, which is significantly more efficient than previously used 2D CAD models. Additionally, BIM is the best in completion of projects because it allows many specialists to work on the model, while eliminating their ability to recreate or destabilize work done by other professionals. It allows project partners to automatically save their contributions to the model based in the set rules. What is more, since the system is interoperable, it easily synchronizes with data from other sources like BIM tools that could be from different vendors. In this way chances of fragmentation that could interfere with interface level management and workflow are reduced through segmented collaboration management. Finally, because BIM systems are gaining big popularity at the construction industry due to their effectiveness and efficiency, many companies may refrain from using them because of the high upfront investment required for the purchase of hardware, software, and training. Apart from that, the total migration cost to BIM may be very high. Buy custom Mobile Technology essay
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Introduction to Media Studies - Essay Example Under the influence of a number of political, cultural, philosophical, and social factors a new bourgeois order emerged. With appearance of this order the relationships between public and private also transformed and the possibility of public discussions of existing situation became possible. Society understood the necessity of polemizing over crucial issues important for its development. That was the period when society learned to express its opinion. According to Habermas, public sphere was and must be characterized by the possibility of people to express that opinion, by common access to it, lack of any political or financial control, and the possibility to debate over general rules (1991; 435). Further capitalism influenced transformation of bourgeois public sphere as it determined an appearance of free competitive market. As a result new institutions specializing on active discussions, such as newspapers, magazine, salons where people got a chance to express this opinion have spread. However, Habermas points to the fact that public sphere underwent more profound transformation with evolution of capitalism. Fast social changes, industrialization of the cities, urbanization, and growth of educational level of society put public sphere into a new reality. Further the boundaries between public and private matters started blurring again and the prevalence of rationalÃ¢â¬â critical debate that was an attribute of bourgeois society was substituted by consumerism. The status of a person was no longer determined by the ability to express valuable opinion regarding political questions and was substituted by the ability to buy and use things. So eventually public sphere has become a sphere of dominance of media and public opinion became dependent on media manipulation. What is more important that introduction of advertising made press, Television, and the Internet a means of trade, thus the initial function of public